Archive: April 2017

Where to Get Inexpensive Texas Family Health Insurance

Twenty-five percent of Texans do not have health insurance and are risking financial ruin because even minor illnesses like appendicitis can cost thousands of dollars. Here’s how to get inexpensive Texas family health insurance so and your family will be protected.

Government-Sponsored Health Insurance Options

Texans have a number of options when it comes to government health insurance programs:

* Medicaid is a state and federal program that provides health insurance coverage for low-income families, people with disabilities, pregnant women, and elderly people who cannot afford private health insurance.

* CHIP, The Children’s Health Insurance Program, provides health insurance to families who earn too much money to be eligible for Medicaid, but cannot afford private insurance coverage for their children.

For more information on government-sponsored health insurance, visit the Texas Health and Human Services Commission website at: hhsc.state.tx.us.

Private Health Insurance Options

Private health insurance options for families living in Texas include:

* Indemnity plans, which pay for comprehensive health care – doctor visits, hospital and surgical fees, plus prescription drugs. These plans allow you to use the doctors and hospitals of your choice. You must pay a deductible ($500 to $2,000) before your insurance company will pay for a percentage of your medical expenses, usually 80%. Indemnity plans are the most expensive health insurance plans.

* Managed health care plans such as HMOs and PPOs, which also pay for doctor vistits, hospital and surgical fees, plus prescription drugs. Unlike indemnity plans, you are assigned to a group of doctors and hospitals, and can only use a doctor or hospital of your choosing by paying an extra fee. Managed health care plans are much cheaper than indemnity plans.

Inexpensive Texas Family Health Insurance

If you don’t qualify for government sponsored health insurance, you can get inexpensive health insurance by going to an insurance comparison website. There you can get quotes from a number of health insurance companies so you can compare them and choose the least expensive plan (see link below).

Visit or click on the following link to get Texas family health insurance quotes from top-rated companies and see how much you can save. You can get more insurance tips in their Articles section, and get answers to your questions from an insurance expert by using their online chat service.

The author, Brian Stevens, is a former insurance agent and financial consultant who has written a number of articles on Texas family health insurance.

Prevention and Treatment of Rheumatoid Arthritis by Lou & Lou

Easy methods to Deal with Arthritis with Traditional Chinese Medicine

Arthritis is a degenerative inflammatory illness that attacks the joints specifically, inflicting symptoms of stiffness, swelling, pain, and lack of the normal vary of motion. It’s especially widespread in aged people, although rheumatoid arthritis can happen in young folks as well.

Causes of Arthritis

In traditional Chinese patterns of disharmony, the various varieties of arthritis fall usually underneath the category of “painful obstruction syndrome.” Acute painful obstruction could be because of wind, cold, dampness, or heat, though it is usually a mix of wind, dampness, and cold.

In an acute attack of wind, cold, and dampness, signs include joint ache that gets worse with chilly and is relieved with heat, a feeling of heaviness or numbness in the limbs, limited mobility of the affected space, and, possibly, a sluggish pulse. A more continual arthritis situation is usually related to an underlying deficiency of the very important substances involving the liver and kidneys, in view of their relationship to the tendons and bones.

Western Therapies for Arthritis

The most common Western therapy for arthritis is non-steroidal anti-inflammatory medicine (NSAIDS). Although these medication can relieve ache and decrease inflammation, they do nothing to cure the disease. And their common side impact, gastric irritation, can lead to ulcers. Actually, a affected person typically bounces back and forth between a rheumatologist and gastroenterologist, first receiving therapy for the arthritis and then receiving treatment for the ulcer attributable to the medication.

Traditional Chinese Therapies for Arthritis

Conventional Chinese therapies additionally cut back ache and irritation, but they focus on eliminating the cause of the arthritis and, thus, the illness itself.

Acupuncture: Arthritis responds very effectively to acupuncture. When mixed with moxa, it could possibly relieve pain and reduce irritation immediately. Some acute instances require just a few treatments. Needles are usually placed into factors surrounding the painful area, bringing circulation to the area and helping relieve the stagnation that causes pain and swelling. A extra power, lengthy-time period arthritic condition can take months or even years to resolve. For that reason, it is essential to begin treating this disorder on the earliest stage possible.

Herbal Therapy: Herbal therapy is very essential as a part of the therapy of chronic cases. The therapy strategy varies, depending on whether the condition is due to warmth or chilly, or if there’s a deficiency of any very important substances. Herbal remedies in chronic circumstances of chilly and dampness need to nourish the underlying deficiency as well as expel the chilly and dampness. The patent method for this condition is Du Huo Ji Sheng Wan. The best components is one custom-made for the patient’s individual constitution and pattern of disharmony.

Exercise: In any type of arthritis, it’s important for the particular person to get common train to warm the body and get the qi and blood flowing via the meridians. Since arthritis is a dysfunction involving stagnation, motion is an essential a part of the therapeutic process.

Food regimen: If the pattern entails chilly and dampness (the most typical sample), the eating regimen ought to consist mostly of cooked meals with reasonable amounts of warming anti-inflammatory spices corresponding to cayenne and ginger. Although espresso is warming, it needs to be prevented on account of its irritating nature.

FDI in retail

FDI is investment which occurs directly across national boundaries. It means when firm of one country buys a controlling investment in firm of another country or where a firm sets up its branch in another country. A firm that engages itself in FDI becomes a multinational enterprise (MNE).

Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) is important because it gives facility to make investments in long-term profits which are in long-term projects working in other countries. The investment is done directly by foreign investors which can be any company or a group of persons who are looking for power in excess of the foreign ventures. It is also a major source of finance where the country can obtain finance from other countries to develop itself. f.

Recently, the government announces that the retail sector is partially opened for FDI. It means the foreign investors who are interested in Indian markets can invest up to 51% in multi brand retail and 74% FDI in single-brand retail. The government decision divided experts on the problem and on its prospects. Some says the decision will decrease opportunities, and will result in wipe out of local stores. The optimists, on the other hand, have seen decision as a large range of opportunities for farm products and more opportunities for the unemployed.

FDI provide benefits to small farmers by working together to form producer companies which will directly work with corporations to get higher revenues, or small farmers must willingly move into the new jobs directly or indirectly created by FDI in sectors such as retail, food processing and supporting industries.

The FDI offers a foreign capital and funds. It also extends an economy of a particular country where the investment is being made. It permits the move of highly developed technologies from developed countries to developing countries which helps in creating fresh jobs in a particular country and in turn the salary of the employee increases. The country where investment is done increases its human capital resource. It also brings new skills in a country & possibility of innovative research increases which helps in the growth of the country.

Now, global retailers are willing to sell their products by setting their own branch or franchises in another country which will again attract foreign capital along with better quality products in a large variety and advance services for the consumers and even consumers will get access of some global brands. This will in turn increase competition in the country and expands manufacturing units. To stand in a market, these global retailers have to lower their prices of foreign goods which need them to set up their manufacturing units locally or to handover the production assignments to domestic manufacturers on their specifications which brings a large number of employments in the country.

All this opportunities make, the Indian retail market a real happening place in the days ahead while at the same time it will be offering immense business opportunities and growth to the domestic entrepreneurs. In result, the Indian market will become the part of the global market.

Some Myths about Federal Health Care Reform or Obamacare.

When the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA, aka ACA) became federal law in March of 2010, there were many assumptions about what the law would and would not do. As everyone knows, it has become known simply as “Obamacare,” because President Obama was the one who wanted health care reform. Here are some misconceptions about health care reform.

One of the first statements made was that the new law was tantamount to “a government takeover of healthcare.” For this to be true, the government would need to inform every citizen that they were being enrolled in a federal healthcare program, sort of like Medicare, which is a federal health care program for any qualifying citizen or permanent resident over the age of 65. In fact, there is no federal alternative to private health insurance today. Since most if not all health insurance companies that were doing business in 2010 are still insuring millions of policyholders today, it is safe to say that there has not been a government takeover of healthcare. It is also true however, that many people would like to see that happen. They would love to see Medicare expanded to include everyone; but that is very unlikely for many years to come, if ever.

“Medicare benefits will be reduced.” Actually the opposite has happened. Medicare now covers annual physical exams and colonoscopies in addition to the quite comprehensive benefits they have long provided. It is true that premium costs to Medicare beneficiaries will go up in future years, but medical costs and premiums have been rising steadily for decades, and seniors do use more medical services than people under 65.

There will be government “death panels” that will make end-of-life decisions for people on Medicare. This idea was borne out of a well-intended provision in the health care bill that would have helped pay for the end-of-life planning discussion cost that the elderly already have with their physicians and caregivers. So a good thing became a bad thing. Now there can be no provisions in Medicare for this benefit which, ironically, hurts seniors and can actually adds to the cost of health care.

Illegal immigrants will now be covered. The ACA specifically prohibits undocumented immigrants from receiving coverage.

What is not known is the true long-term cost of this legislation. There are many people on both sides of the argument, time will tell what the real cost will be, and there are many components of this program still to be implemented. The truth about health care is that it is expensive no matter where you are. Canada, England, France, Switzerland, Italy, China.

All of these countries have some form of government provided health care and while it is less expensive per-capita than in the United States, it is expensive nonetheless. The common element of all health care programs is that every citizen or legal permanent resident is covered. The cost of care per person is far lower when everyone is covered.
What needs to be understood about health care is that every person at some point will seek it out when they need it. Whether or not they have health insurance is not a factor when there is a need for treatment. If a person cannot afford car insurance they have the option of not driving, and few people drive without car insurance. Not so with health insurance, and the situation is made worse by the fact that uninsured people often ignore minor medical issues because of the cost. Unfortunately those minor medical issues have a way of becoming serious, and that is when the uninsured seek care. And where do they go to get treatment then? The emergency room, which happens to be the most expensive entry point into the entire health care system in the U.S. They go there because federal law prohibits hospitals from turning away anyone during a medical emergency.

This is a huge factor in the cost of health insurance, and a major reason why health insurance premiums have risen far in excess of the CPI over the past 30 years. Until that part of the health insurance equation is resolved the cost of insurance will continue to be out of reach for millions of Americans.

In summary, the cost of delivering health care in the U.S. is not going to go away as an issue. The debate over the number of uninsured and whether or not they should be covered, public vs. private insurance, and who pays for all of this will go on until our politicians realize that there is no one best solution. All sides will have to agree that there will always be some elements of a common health care system that not everyone will like. There are many elements of the Affordable Care Act which work, and those elements need to be preserved. Many insurers who initially opposed the Act have since re-tooled their benefit and pricing models to reflect the major objectives of the program. The irony here is that abolishing the ACA would actually increase the cost of coverage as insurers once again had to redesign their policies and coverage. What is needed most of all is a system that works reasonably well and covers everyone or nearly everyone. In the long run, the cost of excluding millions of uninsured will cost more than covering them.

Menosan is Best Herbal Cures for Management of Menopause

Menopause is the time when a woman’s periods stop. A woman reaches the menopause stage when she doesn’t have periods for one year. This happens when a woman’s ovary stops producing hormones estrogen and progesterone. Every woman has to go through this tough phase. During or after menopausal phase, women may experience various symptoms.

Menopause cause symptoms such as hot flashes, mood swing, night sweats, vaginal dryness and trouble in sleeping. The only allopathic effective remedy is Hormone Replacement Therapy (HRT), but it has many side-effects and risks. But Menosan is most effective natural remedy helps to cope with symptoms of menopausal symptoms without any side effects.

Menosan is an outstanding product for women. The multiherbal formula of this product has exceptional ability to deal with all symptoms of menopause and regulates hormonal balance. It assists in management of irritability, mood swings, hot flashes and trouble in sleeping. Menosan not only promote physical health but also provides emotional comfort during menopausal period or post-menopausal period.

The effectiveness of Menosan gets evidenced in several clinical studies. Till date there were nine research papers published in various scientific journals. One of the papers published in Indian Journal of Clinical Practice in 2005 revealed that Menosan, a polyherbal formulation is rich source of phyestrogen significantly and reduced various symptoms such as hot flushes, night sweats, vaginal dryness, anxiety, depression, insomnia and irritation.

This survey also revealed that Menosan possesses cardio protective property, helps to protect from coronary artery disease (CAD). It also contains calcium in high amount useful to treat postmenopausal osteoporosis. Thus, we can conclude that Menosan is clinically efficacious and safe in the management of post-menopausal symptoms. It is also useful to regulate urinary tract functions. The pain and discomfort associated with menopause can be easily overcome.

Menosan contains many herbs but most effective are Ashoka Tree (Ashoka), Asparagus (Shatavari) and Licorice (Yashtimadhu). This formula active conituent is phyestrogen Glycyrrhiza glabra and other isoflavonoid derivatives such as isoflavonol, licorice, global, glabdridin etc. These helps alleviate symptoms of menopause by estrogen receptor dependent mechanism. It binds to bind to estrogen receptors and gives estrogenic effect.

It is recommended to take Menosan twice daily with meal only. To get maximum effect you have to take it for 4-5 weeks because herbal formulations take time to show its effect. It is regarded as a completely safe natural remedy which gives long lasting and effective results.

Apart from these natural remedies, one can also try Online Herbal remedies such as Menosan From Himalaya for Improve Women Fertility without any side effects.

Conceptualizing Mental Health Care Utilization Using The Health Belief Model

Article Text

The process of change in psychotherapy, regardless of the clinician’s orientation, length of treatment, or outcome measure, begins with this: The client must attend a first session. However, several national surveys in the past decade converge on a rate of approximately one-third of individuals diagnosed with a mental disorder receiving any professional treatment (Alegra, Bijl, Lin, Walters, & Kessler, 2000; Andrews, Issakidis, & Carter, 2001; Wang et al., 2005). A review of the literature surrounding mental health utilization reveals evidence that a complex array of psychological, social, and demographic factors influence a distressed individual’s arrival to a mental health clinic. Thus, developing effective strategies for decreasing barriers to care is a critical task for clinicians and administrators. The

aim of this article was to review current research focused on appropriate utilization of mental health services and to use the Health Belief Model (HBM; Becker, 1974) as a parsimonious model for conceptualizing the current knowledge base, as well as predicting and suggesting future research and implementation strategies in the field.

First, it is important to address whether increasing mental health service use is an appropriate public health goal. A World Health Organization (WHO) survey comparing individuals with severe, moderate, or mild disorder symptoms indicated that approximately half of those surveyed went untreated in the past year (WHO World Mental Health Survey Consortium, 2004), with even less treatment among those with more severe symptoms. Many costs are associated with untreated mental disorders, including overuse of primary care services for a variety of reasons (Katon, 2003; White et al., 2008), lost productivity for businesses and lost wages for employees (Adler et al., 2006), as well as the negative impact of mental disorders on medical disorders, such as diabetes and hypertension (Katon & Ciechanowski, 2002). These com

bined expenses have been calculated to rival some of the most common and costly physical disorders, such as heart disease, hypertension, and diabetes (Druss, Rosenheck, & Sledge, 2000; Katon et al., 2008).

The consequences of providing additional services to address unmet need may vary by the cost-effectiveness of treatment, availability of providers, and the interaction of mental health symptoms with other illnesses. Medical cost offset and cost-effectiveness research address these questions (for further review, see Blount et al., 2007; Hunsley, 2003). Medical cost offset refers to the estimation of cost savings produced by reduced use of services for primary care as a result of providing psychological services. Reduced medical expenses could occur for several reasons: increased adherence to lifestyle recommendation changes such as diet, exercise, smoking, or taking medications; improved psychological and physical health; and reduction in unnecessary medical visits which serve a secondary purpose (e.g

., making appointments to fill social needs; Hunsley, 2003). In comparison with the indirect costs to society, the individual, and the health care system, costs for providing mental health treatment are quite low (Blount et al., 2007).

However, debate continues regarding how to facilitate mental health care utilization. Identification of mental health need through primary care screening for depression is one research area that highlights the complexity of this issue. Palmer and Coyne (2003) point out several important issues in developing a strategy for addressing this goal: First, several studies suggest that identification of depression in primary care is not enough, as outcomes for depression are similar in primary care patients who have detected depression and those who have not (e.g., Coyne, Klinkman, Gallo, & Schwenk, 1997; Williams et al., 1999). This is supported by research indicating a large gap between the number of individuals who are identified through screening and referred to care, and those who actually receive care (Flynn, O’Mahen, Massey, & Marcus, 2006). Second, it is critical to evaluate attempts to increase utilization, rather than to assume they will be successful, cost-effective, and targeting the appropriate individuals. Therefore, a theoretical framework that addresses both psychological and practical factors associated with treatment utilization will be a beneficial addition to this literature.

Little systematic research has been conducted on the specific topic of psychological factors related to seeking mental health services. However, extensive work has been conducted within two broad, related areas of research: help-seeking behavior and health psychology. Many models have been proposed to explain help-seeking and health-protecting behaviors, none of which has been accepted as wholly superior to the rest. The HBM (Becker, 1974; Janz & Becker, 1984; Rosenstock, 1966) is one of several commonly used social-cognitive theories of health behavior. This model will be reviewed, followed by a brief discussion of several other models. A discussion of the strengths of the HBM and its applicability to mental health treatment utilization research will follow.
Health Belief Model
The HBM (Rosenstock, 1966, 1974), based in a socio-cognitive perspective, was originally developed in the 1950s by social psychologists to explain the failure of some individuals to use preventative health behaviors for early detection of diseases, patient response to symptoms, and medical compliance (Janz & Becker, 1984 ; Kirscht, 1972; Rosenstock, 1974). The theory hypothesizes that people are likely to engage in a given health-related behavior to the extent that they (a) perceive that they could contract the illness or be susceptible to the problem (perceived susceptibility); (b) believe that the problem has serious consequences or will interfere with their daily functioning (perceived severity); (c) believe that the intervention or preventative action will be effective in reducing symptoms (perceived benefits); and (d) perceive few barriers to taking action (perceived barriers). All four variables are thought to be influenced by demographic variables such as race, age, and socioeconomic status. A fifth original factor, cues to action, is frequently neglected in studies of the HBM, but nevertheless provides an important social factor related to mental health care utilization. Cues to action are incidents serving as a reminder of the severity or threat of an illness. These may include personal experiences of symptoms, such as noticing the changing shape of a mole that triggers an individual to consider his or her risk of skin cancer, or external cues, such as a conversation initiated by a physician about smoking cessation. In addition, Rosenstock, Strecher, and Becker (1988) added components of social cognitive theory (Ba ndura, 1977a, 1977b) to the HBM. They proposed that one’s expectation about the ability to influence outcomes (self-efficacy) is an important component in understanding health behavior outcomes. Thus, believing one is capable of quitting smoking (efficacy expectation) is as crucial in determining whether the person will actually quit as knowing the individual’s perceived susceptibility, severity, benefits, and barriers.

Other health care utilization theories

Other models for health care utilization have been proposed and used as a guide for research. In general, these theories pull from a number of learning theories (e.g., Bandura, 1977a, 1977b; Lewin, 1936; Watson, 1925). Two such models, the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB; Ajzen, 1991) and the Self-Regulation Model (SRM; Leventhal, Nerenz, & Steele, 1984), share many commonalities with the HBM. Ajzen’s TPB proposes that intentions to engage in a behavior predict an individual’s likelihood of actually engaging in the given behavior. Ajzen hypothesizes that intentions are influenced by attitudes toward the usefulness of engaging in a behavior, perceived expectations of important others such as family or friends, and perceived ability to engage in the behavior if desired (Ajzen, 1991). This theory has been applied to a variety of health behaviors and has receiv

ed support for its utility in predicting health behaviors (Ajzen, 1991; Armitage & Conner, 2001; Godin & Kok, 1996). However, its relevance in predicting mental health care utilization has received relatively little attention (for two exceptions, see Angermeyer, Matschinger, & Riedel-Heller, 1999; Skogstad, Deane, & Spicer, 2006). Similarly, the SRM (Leventhal et al., 1984) focuses on an individual’s personal representation of his or her illness as a predictor of mental health treatment use. The SRM proposes that individuals’ representation of their illness is comprised of how the individual labels the symptoms he or she is experiencing, the perceived consequences and causes of the symptoms for the individual, the expected time in which the individual would expect to be relieved of symptoms, and the perceived control or cure of the illness (Lau & Hartman, 1983).

The HBM, TPB, and SRM are well-estab

lished socio-cognitive models with similar strengths and weaknesses. The models assume a rational decision-making process in determining behavior, which has been criticized for not addressing the emotional components of some health behaviors, such as using condoms or seeking psychotherapy (Sheeran & Abraham, 1994). There is substantial overlap in the constructs of these three models. For example, an individual’s perception of the normative beliefs of others can be seen more generally as a benefit of treatment (e.g., if I seek treatment my friends will support my decision) or as a barrier (e.g., my family will think I am crazy if they know I am seeking professional help). The SRM lacks a full description of the benefit and barrier aspects of decision making identified in the HBM. However, the illness perceptions about timeline, identity, and consequences do provide a more complete conceptualization of aspects of perceived severity, and in this way the SRM can inform the HBM with these factors.

Andersen’s Sociobehavioral Model (Andersen, 1995) and Pescosolido’s Network Episode Model (Pescosolido, 1992; Pescosolido, Brooks Gardner, & Lubell, 1998) emphasize the role of the health care and social network system in influencing patterns of health care use, while Cramer’s (1999) Help Seeking Model highlights the role of self-concealment and social support in decisions to seek counseling. In particular, the Network Episode Model hypothesizes that clear, independent choice is only one of seve

ral ways that clients enter treatment, along with coercion and passive, indirect pathways to care. According to Cramer’s model, individuals who habitually conceal personally distressing information tend to have lower social support, higher personal distress, and more negative attitudes toward seeking psychological help. Thus, according to this model, self-concealment creates high distress, which pushes an individual toward seeking treatment, but also creates negative attitudes toward treatment, pushing an individual away from treatment. The HBM includes system-level benefits and barriers to utilization, but these three models more fully emphasize the social-emotional context of decision making.
Critiques and limitations of the HBM

The HBM has received some criticism regarding its utility for predicting health behaviors. Ogden (2003), in a review of articles from 1997 to 2001 using social cognition models, questions whether the theory is disconfirmable. She found that two-thirds of the studies reviewed found one or more variables within the model to b

e insignificant, and explained variance accounted for by the model ranged from 1% to 65% when predicting actual behavior. Yet, Ogden writes, rather than rejecting the model, the majority of authors offer alternative explanations for their weak findings and claim that the theory is supported. While authors’ conclusions about their findings may be overstated in many cases, some explanations of insignificant findings are valid limitations of the model. For example, some (e.g., Castle, Skinner, & Hampson, 1999) point out that construct operationalization could be improved for the particular health behavior being studied. However, insignificant results should not be explained away without considering alternative models as well. Certainly, the HBM has received strong support in predicting some health behaviors (Aiken, West, Woodward, & Reno, 1994; Gillibrand & Stevenson, 2006), but questions remain as to its ability to predict all preventative health situations. The usefulnes

s of the HBM in predicting mental health utilization has not adequately been tested to our knowledge.

The HBM may be limited further by its ability to predict more long-term health-related behaviors. For example, from an early review of preventive health behavior models including the HBM by Kirscht (1983), we can anticipate that the factors associated with initiating treatment, as discussed here, may differ from the factors that predict mental health treatment adherence and engagement. Thus, these outcomesattending one therapy appointment versus completing a full course of psychotherapy treatmentshould be clearly distinguished from each other.
Strengths of the HBM

Researchers have not explicitly investigated mental health utilization patterns using the HBM framework; however, much of the

existing literature can be conceptualized as dimensions of severity, benefits, and barriers, indicating that the model may be a useful framework for guiding research in this area. For example, cultural researchers often examine barriers to treatment and perceived severity of symptoms and benefits of treatment in various ethnic populations (e.g., Constantine, Myers, Kindaichi, & Moore, 2004; Zhang, Snowden, & Sue, 1998). In general, the focus of these studies has been to examine cultural differences in beliefs about symptom causes (Chadda, Agarwal, Singh, & Raheja, 2001), changing perceptions of mental health stigma among various ethnic groups (Schnittker, Freese, & Powell, 2000), and cultural mistrust or perceived cultural insensitivity of mental health providers as a barrier to effective treatment (Poston, Craine, & Atkinson, 1991). These studies lay the groundwork for using the HBM as a framework for understanding mental health care utilization for all populations.
Parsimonious and Clear

The model’s use of benefits and barriers opposing each other provides a dynamic representation of the decision-making process. In this “common sense” presentation, the impact of each positive aspect is considered in the context of the

negative aspects. The model in this way provides a parsimonious explanation of a variety of constructs within one clear framework.
Useful and Applicable

One strength of focusing on attitudes and perceptions related to treatment seeking is the clinical utility of such models. By identifying attitudes that may inhibit appropriate help seeking, psychologists can then use research findings to develop interventions for addressing maladaptive attitudes or inaccurate beliefs about mental health and its treatment. Therefore, socio-cognitive theory provides a useful focus for research that ultimately may result in programmatic changes to benefit clients. Once developed, perception-change interventions can be evaluated through changes in observed treatment utilization.

Within the HBM framework, three general approaches can be used to increase appropriate utilization: increasing perceptions of individual susceptibility to illness and severity of symptoms, decreasing the psychological or physical barriers to treatment, or increasing the perceived benefits of treatment. The following discussion will highlight how each perception can be increased or decreased, and the implic

ations for such intensification of the perceptions. Examples of intervention strategies that can serve as individual or system-level “cues to action” will be reviewed within each domain of the model. In addition, where appropriate, the discussions will highlight how sociodemographic factors such as age, sex, and ethnicity impact the perceived threat from the disorder and the expectations for the benefits of therapy. The model we discuss assumes that the individual seeking therapy is autonomous in this decision making. That is, it is not directly applicable to those who are required to seek therapy by the judicial system, a spouse, or their place of employment, nor does it address children’s mental health care utilization. We will address some of these issues briefly later in our discussion.

Figure 1 is a visual representation of the model we propose for conceptualizing mental health care utilization using the HBM as a framework. The studies reviewed in each section below were designed primarily without use of the HBM framework. However, the model is a useful heuristic tool to organize and draw in research from a variety of disciplinesmarketing, public health, psychology, medicine, etc.

Sociodemographic variables in the HBM
Several demographic variables consistently predict utilization of mental health services. Despite similar levels of distress, some groups are less likely to seek professional treatment than others, creating a gap between need and actual use of outpatient mental health services. Groups identified as consistently underutilizing services include men, adults aged 65 and older, and ethnic minority groups in the United States (Wang et al., 2005). Within the HBM framework, these demographic variables are hypothesized to influence clients’ perceptions of severity, benefits, and barriers to seeking professional mental health services. Studies exploring the relationship between demographic variables and HBM constructs will be highlighted throughout this article.
Systems approaches to addressing perceived susceptibility and severity

According to the HBM, individuals vary in how vulnerable they believe they are to contracting a disorder (susceptibility). Once diagnosed with the disorder, this dimension of the HBM has been reformulated to include acceptance of the diagnosis (Becker & Maiman, 1980). In addition, increasing an individual’s perception of the severity of his or her symptoms increases the likelihood that he or she will seek treatment. In relation to mental health, perceived susceptibility goes hand in hand with perceived severity (i.e., Do I have the disorder and how bad is it?), and so they will be discussed together. In health-related decisions, the majority of consumers are dependent upon the expertise and referral of the medical professional, usually the trusted general practitioner (Lipscomb, Root, & Shelley, 2004; Thompson, Hunt, & Issakidis, 2004). Unlike decisions about the need for a new vehicle or a firmer mattress, determining whether or not feelings of sadness should be interpreted as normal emotional fluctuation or as indicators of depression is a decision often left to an expert in the area of mental health or a primary care physician. This places a great responsibility on practitioners, psychiatrists, psychologists, and other mental health service providers when discussing the severity of a client’s symptoms and options for treatment.
Ethical Considerations in Increasing Perceived Severity and Symptom Awareness

The American Psychological Association (APA) provides ethical guidelines for clinicians about how to inform the public appropriately about mental health services. According to the 2002 Ethics Code (American Psychological Association, 2002), psychologists are prohibited from soliciting testimonials from current therapy clients for the purpose of advertising, as individuals in such circumstances may be influenced by the therapistclient relationship they experience. Additionally, psychologists are prohibited from soliciting business from those who are not seeking care, whether a current or potential client. This may include a psychologist suggesting treatment services to a person who has just experienced a car accident or handing out business cards to individuals at a funeral home. However, disaster or community outreach services are not prohibited, as these are services to the community. Psychologists are prohibited from making false statements knowingly about their training, credentials, services, and fees, and are also prohibited from making knowingly deceptive or exaggerated statements about the success or scientific evidence for their services. In this way, limits are placed on the influence of practitioners on those in vulnerable situations.
Identification of Symptoms

What, then, does an ethical symptom awareness intervention look like? It would involve clearly differentiating between clinical and nonclinical levels of distress, with an indication of what types of intervention strategies may be most effective for each. For example, in cases of mild symptomatology, individuals may be encouraged to use a stepped care approach beginning with bibliotherapy, psychoeducation, and increases in social support. Also important is the provision of accurate, research-based information regarding symptoms of psychological disorders and treatment options. This may call for challenging our assumptions that psychotherapy is helpful for all psychological distress. Recent studies of grief counseling and postdisaster crisis counseling, for example, suggest there may be an iatrogenic effect of therapy for some individuals (Bonanno & Lilienfeld, 2008). On the other hand, some research indicates that individuals with subclinical levels of distress who receive treatment early may avoid developing more severe pathology (e.g., prodromal psychosis; Killackey & Yung, 2007). In programming for all components of health beliefs, not just severity, the credibility of psychotherapy is dependent upon ethical, appropriate public health statements and service marketing.

Many examples of mental health education campaigns have been discussed in the literature, often focusing simultaneously on increasing awareness of mental illness, destigmatizing individuals with mental illness, and increasing awareness of mental health resources. The Defeat Depression Campaign of the UK was designed with these goals in mind, and results of nationally representative polls before, during, and after the campaign indicated positive changes in public attitude toward depression and recognition of personal experiences of symptoms (Paykel, Tylee, & Wright, 1997). Similarly, more recent national campaigns in Australia have provided some evidence that education increases public accuracy in identifying mental illness (Jorm & Kelly, 2007). National screening day initiatives for depression, substance abuse, and other psychological disorders also aim to increase awareness of illness severity for individuals who may not recognize symptoms as signs of illness warranting treatment.

Approximately 71% (Lipscomb et al., 2004; Thompson et al., 2004) of individuals report looking to their primary care physician for mental health information, treatment, and referrals. However, many physicians lack the appropriate knowledge to identify mental health problems (Hodges, Inch, & Silver, 2001). After examining five decades (19502000) of articles evaluating the adequacy of physician training in detecting, diagnosing, and treating mental health, Hodges et al. (2001) offer several suggestions for improving primary care physicians’ training to effectively identify patients with mental health issues. Beyond learning the diagnostic criteria for the major disorders and providing appropriate medications when needed, however, physicians also need to be aware that they can act as a “cue to action” in the patient seeking psychotherapy. Such cues would alert the patient that his or her symptoms of distress or depression had reached severe levels and that the trusted family physician believes additional treatment is needed.
Influence of Demographic Variables on Perceived Severity

An individual’s personal label of the symptoms and illness are thought to contribute to perceived severity. In a study of four large-scale surveys of psychiatric help seeking, Kessler, Brown, and Broman (1981) found that women more often labeled feelings of distress as emotional problems than men did, a factor thought to help explain the consistent finding that men seek mental health services less often than women even when experiencing similar emotional problems. Similarly, Nykvist, Kjellberg, and Bildt (2002) found that among men and women reporting neck and stomach pains, women were more likely to attribute pains to psychological distress, while men were more likely to indicate no significant cause and little concern regarding the somatic symptoms.

Relatively little research has been conducted regarding how individuals of diverse backgrounds perceive the severity of their mental illness symptoms. However, some evidence suggests that individuals of different ethnic backgrounds appraise the severity of their illness symptoms differently, such that individuals from minority cultures are more influenced by their own culture’s norms about mental illness symptoms than White Americans (Dinges & Cherry, 1995; Okazaki & Kallivayalil, 2002). Cues to action from providers may be more effective if they are framed in a way that is congruent with individuals’ attributions about symptoms. In other cases, education about symptoms, provided in a culturally sensitive manner, may be necessary. This is an area where additional research is needed to determine practice.

Older adults are more likely to seek treatment when they perceive a strong need for treatment (Coulton & Frost, 1982). However, some aspects of aging may influence whether or not older adults perceive ambiguous symptoms as psychological in nature or due to physical ailments. For example, among older adults, particularly those experiencing chronic pain or illness, somatic symptoms of mental illness may be interpreted as symptoms of physical illness or part of a natural aging process, rather than as symptoms of depression or anxiety (Smallbrugge, Pot, Jongenelis, Beekman, & Eefsting, 2005). In this way, some depression symptoms may be overlooked by older individuals and the physicians who see them (Gatz & Smyer, 1992).
Systems approaches to addressing perceived benefits
Even if clients do view their symptoms as warranting attention, they are unlikely to seek treatment if they do not believe they will benefit from professional services. Thus, increasing perceived benefits of treatment is a second approach to increasing appropriate utilization.

Public Perceptions of Psychotherapy

In response to changing health care markets, the 1996 APA Council of Representatives called for the creation of a public education campaign to inform consumers about psychological care, research, services, and the value of psychological interventions (Farberman, 1997). Results of preprogram focus group assessments indicated that participants were frustrated with changes in health care service delivery in the United States and many participants did not know whether their health insurance policy included mental health benefits. Participants indicated that they did not know when it was appropriate to seek professional help, and often cited lack of confidence in mental health outcomes, lack of coverage, and shame associated with help seeking as main reasons for not seeking treatment. Participants reported that the best way to educate the public about the value of psychological services was to show life stories of how they helped real people with real-life issues. Informed by the focus groups and telephone interviews, APA launched a pilot campaign in two states using television, radio, and print advertisements depicting individuals who have benefited from psychotherapy, as well as an 800 telephone number, a consumer brochure, and a consumer information website. During the first six months of the campaign, over 4,000 callers contacted the campaign service bureau for a referral to the state psychological association to request campaign literature, with over 3,000 people visiting the Internet site weekly (Farberman, 1997). In sum, addressing perceived benefits of treatment means answering the question, “What good would it do?” When individuals are made aware of how treatment could improve their daily functioning, they may be more motivated to overcome the perceived barriers to treatment. Especially for individuals who have not previously sought mental health treatment, describing realistic expectations for treatment may be an essential first step in orienting individuals to make informed treatment decisions.
Public Preference for Providers of Care

Many different types of professionals serve as mental health service providers, and individuals’ beliefs about the relative benefit of seeking help from various lay and professional sources likely impact decisions to seek help. Roles have shifted in treatment over time, with the introduction of managed care and the increased role of the PsyD, master’s-level psychologist or counselor, and MSW as treatment providers. Counseling has been considered a primary role of clergy for many decades; however, specificity of counseling training has changed over time, with some clergy receiving specific training as counselors within seminary education. Primary care physicians have been relied upon for treatment through pharmacotherapy with the development of improved medications for depression, anxiety, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, among others. While few primary care physicians conduct traditional therapy sessions, many individuals report that they first share mental health concerns with their primary care physician, making this profession an important potential gateway for psychotherapy (Mickus, Colenda, & Hogan, 2000).

Level of distress may also influence where individuals seek help: Consumer Reports’ popular survey of over 4,000 participants found that individuals tend to see a primary care physician for less severe emotional distress and seek a mental health professional for more severe distress (Consumer Reports, 1995), while Jorm, Griffiths, and Christensen (2004) found that individuals with depressive symptoms were most likely to use self-help strategies in mild to moderate levels of severity and to seek professional help at high levels of severity.

Some support has been found for the importance of a match between individuals’ perceptions of the cause of symptoms and the type of treatment they seek. In a German national survey, perceptions of the cause of depression and schizophrenia significantly predicted preferences for professional or lay help. Those who endorsed a biological cause of illness reported they would be more likely to advise an ailing friend to seek help from a psychiatrist, family physician, or psychotherapist, and less likely to advise seeking help from a confidant. Perceptions of social-psychological causes of illness, such as family conflict, isolation, or alcohol abuse, were related to advising a confidant, self-help group, or psychotherapist rather than a psychiatrist or physician (Angermeyer et al., 1999).
Demographic Variables and Perceived Benefits

Perceptions of mental health treatment as beneficial are likely shaped by cultural influences as well as an individual’s personal experience. In a subset of randomly selected individuals from a nationally representative survey, Schnittker et al. (2000) compared Black and White respondents’ beliefs about the etiology of mental illnesses and their attitudes toward using professional mental health services. Black respondents were more likely than White respondents to endorse views of mental illness as God’s will or due to bad character, and less likely to attribute mental illness to genetic variation or poor family upbringing. These beliefs predicted less positive views of mental health services, and the authors found that more than 40% of the racial difference in attitudes toward treatment was attributable to differences in beliefs about the cause of mental illness.

Older adults’ reluctance to seek psychological services has been connected with more negative attitudes toward psychological services (Speer, Williams, West, & Dupree, 1991). Attitudes toward psychotherapy appear to improve by aging cohort, however. Currin, Hayslip, Schneider, and Kooken (1998) assessed dimensions of mental health attitudes among two different cohorts of older adults and found that younger cohorts of older adults hold more positive attitudes toward mental health services. Thus, attitudes among older adults may be less attributable to age than to changing cultural acceptance of mental illness over time. Older adults who have engaged in professional psychological treatment tend to see mental health treatment as more beneficial than their counterparts who have never sought treatment (Speer et al., 1991).

Across diverse religious orientations, beliefs in a spiritual cause of mental illness have been associated with preference for treatment from a religious leader rather than a mental health professional (Chadda et al., 2001; Cinnirella & Loewenthal, 1999). For individuals who interpret psychological distress symptoms as spiritually based, a religious leader may be viewed as a more beneficial provider than a traditional mental health professional. Some clients prefer to see clergy for mental health concerns. Some psychologists have formed relationships between religious organizations and mental health providers to foster collaboration and access to many care options for community members (McMinn, Chaddock, & Edwards, 1998). Benes, Walsh, McMinn, Dominguez, and Aikins (2000) describe a model of clergypsychology collaboration. Using Catholic Social Services as a medium through which collaboration took place, psychologists, priests, religious school teachers, and parishioners collaborated through a continuum of care beginning with prevention (public speaking about mental health topics, parent training workshops) through intervention (1-800 access numbers, support groups, and counseling services). The authors note that bidirectional referralsnot simply clergy referring to cliniciansand a sharing of techniques and expertise are keys to the success of such programs. Providing care to individuals through the source that they consider most credible or accessible is an innovative strategy for increasing perceived treatment benefits and decreasing barriers
Marketing Psychological Services

While the idea of marketing psychological services may seem unappealing to some psychologists, marketing strategies designed to encourage appropriate utilization may serve as both a strategy for the field of psychology as well as an outreach service to improve public health. In order to benefit from psychotherapy, individuals must view it as a legitimate way to address their problems. Strategies may include marketing psychological services at a national level, such as the APA’s 1996 public education campaign (Farberman, 1997); at a group level, such as a community mental health system providing rationale for increased funding; or at an individual level, such as an independent private practitioner seeking to increase referrals. Two theories, social marketing theory and problem-solution marketing, are useful models for developing effective mental health campaigns.
Social Marketing Theory

Rochlen and Hoyer (2005) identify social marketing theory as a framework for identifying strategies specifically aimed at changing social behaviors. Three principles define social marketing: negative demand, sensitive issues, and invisible preliminary benefits (Andreason, 2004). Negative demand describes the challenge of selling a product (psychotherapy, in this case) that the individual does not want to buy. In the case of individuals who see therapy as unhelpful or a frightening experience, addressing negative demand would include considering the viewpoint of a reluctant audience and perhaps utilizing the Stages of Change model (Prochaska & DiClemente, 1984), in which the goal of the marketing campaign would be to move an individual from the precontemplation stage to the contemplation stage of change. Social marketing theory also takes into account the degree of sensitivity in the task being encouraged; that is, seeking psychotherapy requires a greater amount of mental energy and vulnerability than less sensitive purchases, such as a new motorcycle. The principle of invisible preliminary benefit reminds those marketing psychological services that the benefits of choosing to seek psychological help are often not seen immediately, as they are when receiving a pain medication. Therefore, marketing strategies for mental health must make consumers aware of psychotherapy’s benefits and the long-term prospect of improving quality of life.

Dental Implants In Kent, Specialized Dentists In Kent

What are the dental implants?
Dental implants are kind of root devices and Titanium is used to make them, and if you go to Kent and intend to get dental implants, then they really make them real like or actual tooth, if you are here in Kent or nearby then you must look for dental implants in Kent only. People staying or residing here would know that Kent is a beautiful place with ample of facilities and is blessed with natural resources. So when we talk about the skilled workers over here we can never forget the dentists, who are contributing to make millions of people healthy, as dental problems lead to so many other ailments which can lead to disaster. So to avoid this situation the most important thing is to see the problem and then the clinic accordingly. Implants cannot be done by all the doctors who are in

Need of a good dentistry:
You can never ignore the health of your teeth so dentistry gives you a chance to know about the value of dental health. Dental disorders or problems like cavities, misalignment, replacing a damaged tooth these entire problems make your smile bitter. Even if you have a bad dentistry naturally, this can be also cured by the modern dental doctors. Bad breath can result into loosing reputation in job or business. So dental problems are really critical and need great care.

Need of skilled doctor:
To get the degree these dentists really do hard work they gain a two year or four year degree to get skilled and then they practice in the particular field .Dental implants Kent, are the implants, which will never lead you to repentance. There you will get complete satisfaction and the doctor will give you individual attention too, as everyone cannot be considered and cared in same way.

Patient condition is to be noticed before implants:
However the most important thing is that a dentist should check before dental implants that you must not be suffering from any disease, which can lead to further problems like sugar or high BP. If anything is done in this situation then a patient may suffer long lasting disease and anguish.

Implants can make your smile good:
Dental implants take the place of your broken tooth or teeth and then provide you a better smile. You can smile and make the whole world own. You can also chew your food properly and minutely. When you will not feel any problem in chewing your food then in any case you will have less digestive problems too. Digestion must be good as we all know that the stomach diseases are the root cause of other problems like bad breath and body and stomach aches. So not only you will have an artificial reason to smile but also you will have a natural smile on your face that would be there because of your good health. So visit the Dental Implants Kent and get a natural smile.

A Holistic Approach To Menopause and Depression

The feelings of sadness from menopause and depression can come in like a fog. This can be a real surprise for a woman who has never experienced feelings of depression before. The feelings of despair and frustration can come and go in waves.

To make matters worse, there is the stigma attached to depression, which only feeds the problem. There is a silver lining though! The definitely is a way to restore those good feelings of health and happiness!

One very good answer to menopause and depression is to find a holistic health provider to guide you. This type of depression, known as sub-clinical, is the result of a hormonal imbalance, which is the result of menopause.

It is common knowledge that the hormonal balance in a woman’s body is changed during menopause. This change will cause you to experience any or all of the common menopause symptoms: insomnia, irritability, mood swings, and depression.

Many women are advised to take anti-depressants, such as Prozac, Praxil and Effexor. For a woman suffering from clinical depression this is the best option, however, if your depression is sub clinical, you should certainly find out if the cause is a hormonal imbalance.

You can quickly find out a lot by taking a free test to determine if you do have a hormonal imbalance, and, if so, to what degree. A good holistic health care provider will also have a similar test you can take.

Clinical depression has no apparent cause

This is a serious condition that requires medical attention and possibly anti-depressants. Clinical depression is typically associated with intense feeling of sadness that have no apparent cause. A common cause could be a child leaving home, fatigue from overwork, stress at work, relationship problems, etc.

When the feelings just have no apparent reason, and just will not go away in time, you need to seek medical attention. After your feelings are normal, you will be in a position to use a holistic method of treatment.

Sub clinical depression is cause related

Some of the causes for sub clinical depression are things such as a death in the family, stress on the job, relationship stress, etc. Sub clinical depression will generally respond quite well to restoring your hormonal balance.

Conclusion

Your body naturally seeks a balanced state, which is known as homeostasis. This balance is naturally disturbed during menopause and a holistic approach to health can help you.

As you learn to interpret your own symptoms of menopause, you will have the tools you need to find that balance once again. Those good feelings of health and happiness will return and your menopause and depression will be manageable.

Randy Hough has a website: SafeMenopauseRelief.com that talks about menopause and depression.

Some Health Insurance Is Better Than None

This day and age is probably the toughest health insurance issues my generation will ever see. You may have lost our job or the job you have is dropping your coverage or simply raising your premium and you cant afford it. Here are some suggestions that may be helpful to a situation you might be in.

What we really need to convince our selves with is that not to have any health insurance is bad for us all. Yes we can be saving but the guarantee of not getting sick or injured is a very small percentage. I know how tough it is because you may have a pre-existing condition or maybe your self employed or possibly just flat broke. Start doing your homework and look for the best coverage you can afford. Two key words, afford and best.

Find a job, any job. Even if it pays minimum wage and regardless of what you have to do. Could be a part time job or a night shift. Be careful about part time jobs, some companies will provide some coverage but make sure its what you need. Another idea is to join an association or membership. Many of them may provide a real good plan that could be affordable. A large membership can provide it cheaper than trying to get insurance individually.

Great coverage has to be affordable. Consider just having coverage for catastrophic, some is better than none. If you see a doctor once a year, catastrophic will be the least expensive. This will give you a large deductible but keep your premium really low. This will cover you when a long term or unexpected illness may occur. Something like an $40,000 surgery.

If you dont end up getting any health insurance at all I have found that you could talk to your doctor when you have that once a year visit. Let him know what situation your in, cash payment may reduce the cost of some procedures and maybe help with medications. It cant hurt to ask and some doctors my be accommodating.

I think this is helpful stuff, most have been through many experiences I have had and also from friends and family. Talk about health insurance with other people, sometimes what they know and what they might be going through may be beneficial information for you.

Budgeting monthly for your health insurance needs to be crucial right up there with your other required bills. For the greatest cost, you need to get some health insurance quotes and then compare the benefits.

Heal Your Acne Faster Doing These 4 Simple Things…

Did you know that your body can heal acne a lot faster if its healthy?
Yes, its true! Ive tried all kinds of acne treatments. Sometimes it my acne heals fast, sometimes it doesnt. And now I finally figured out why the times when my acne heals fast is when my body was healthy.
In other words, your body cannot heal acne if its not healthy.
So if you want to naturally speed up the healing process of your acne then these 4 tips will be the most helpful acne healing tips you ever read:

A Healthy Body your body cannot heal acne if its not healthy. Because without a healthy body, the healing process will be very slow, even if youre using the best acne treatment on the market.
For example, if youre healthy, you can heal acne as fast as 2 to 3 days with an effective acne treatment. If its not healthy, then it can take as long as a month.
So in order to maintain a healthy body, you have to make sure your body is getting all the essential vitamins and minerals it needs in every meal you consume.

Workout working out is extremely essential for overall health. It will give your body the energy it needs to heal acne. So make sure you workout at least 3 times a week.

Stop Stressing stress interrupts your bodys healing process of acne and it may even worsen your acne condition. But you can reduce stress by meditating or doing yoga.
These 2 stress reducers works great. So make sure you do them so your body can heal acne quickly and smoothly without interruptions.

Get Enough Sleep healing acne takes energy, and if you dont get enough sleep then your body will not have enough energy to heal acne. So as you can see, getting enough sleep is very important to healing acne fast.
So get at least 8 hours of sleep each night.
These are the 4 steps you can help your acne heal faster.